支持emoji图标直接存储到数据库,更改MySQL数据库的编码为utf8mb4

星期一, 2017-10-23 | Author: Lee | Database, JAVA-and-J2EE | 53 views

随着emoji的频繁使用,对接微信后会带名字的emoji的很多,现在都需要支持.

utf-8编码可能2个字节、3个字节、4个字节的字符,但是MySQL的utf8编码只支持3字节的数据,而移动端的表情数据是4个字节的字符。

如果直接往采用utf-8编码的数据库中插入表情数据,java程序中将报SQL异常:

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java.sql.SQLException: Incorrect string value: ‘\xF0\x9F\x92\x94’ for column ‘name’ at row 1 
at com.mysql.jdbc.SQLError.createSQLException(SQLError.java:1073) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlIO.checkErrorPacket(MysqlIO.java:3593) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlIO.checkErrorPacket(MysqlIO.java:3525) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlIO.sendCommand(MysqlIO.java:1986) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.MysqlIO.sqlQueryDirect(MysqlIO.java:2140) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.ConnectionImpl.execSQL(ConnectionImpl.java:2620) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.StatementImpl.executeUpdate(StatementImpl.java:1662) 
at com.mysql.jdbc.StatementImpl.executeUpdate(StatementImpl.java:1581)

可以对4字节的字符进行编码存储,然后取出来的时候,再进行解码。但是这样做会使得任何使用该字符的地方都要进行编码与解码。

utf8mb4编码是utf8编码的超集,兼容utf8,并且能存储4字节的表情字符。

采用utf8mb4编码的好处是:存储与获取数据的时候,不用再考虑表情字符的编码与解码问题。

更改数据库的编码为utf8mb4:

1. MySQL的版本

utf8mb4的最低mysql版本支持版本为5.5.3+,若不是,请升级到较新版本。

2. MySQL驱动

5.1.34可用,最低不能低于5.1.13

3.修改MySQL配置文件
my.cnf一般在/etc/my.cnf位置。找到后请在以下三部分里添加如下内容:

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[mysqld] 
character-set-client-handshake = FALSE 
character-set-server = utf8mb4 
collation-server = utf8mb4_unicode_ci 
init_connect='SET NAMES utf8mb4'
 
[client] 
default-character-set = utf8mb4 
[mysql] 
default-character-set = utf8mb4

4. 重启数据库,检查变量

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SHOW VARIABLES WHERE Variable_name LIKE 'character_set_%' OR Variable_name LIKE 'collation%';
 
Variable_name	Value
character_set_client	utf8mb4
character_set_connection	utf8mb4
character_set_database	utf8mb4
character_set_filesystem	binary
character_set_results	utf8mb4
character_set_server	utf8mb4
character_set_system	utf8
collation_connection	utf8mb4_unicode_ci
collation_database	utf8mb4_unicode_ci
collation_server	utf8mb4_unicode_ci
collation_connection 、collation_database 、collation_server是什么没关系。
 
但必须保证
 
系统变量	描述
character_set_client	(客户端来源数据使用的字符集)
character_set_connection	(连接层字符集)
character_set_database	(当前选中数据库的默认字符集)
character_set_results	(查询结果字符集)
character_set_server	(默认的内部操作字符集)
这几个变量必须是utf8mb4。

5. 数据库连接的配置

数据库连接参数中:
characterEncoding=utf8会被自动识别为utf8mb4,也可以不加这个参数,会自动检测。
而autoReconnect=true是必须加上的。

6. 将数据库和已经建好的表也转换成utf8mb4

更改数据库编码:ALTER DATABASE xxdb CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci;

更改表编码:ALTER TABLE TABLE_NAME CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci;
如有必要,还可以更改列的编码

可以写代码批量进行转换:

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//获取所有表
Connection conn = null;
 
try {
    conn = DbUtilsTool.openConn("MySQL", "127.0.0.1", "3306", "xxdb", "root", "root");
    String sql = "show tables";
    QueryRunner qr = new QueryRunner();
    List<String> tblNameList= (List<String>) qr.query(conn, sql, new ColumnListHandler(1));
    sql = "ALTER DATABASE xx CHARACTER SET `utf8mb4` COLLATE `utf8mb4_general_ci`";
    qr.update(conn,sql);
    for (String str:tblNameList)
    {
        sql = "ALTER TABLE "+str+" CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET `utf8mb4` COLLATE `utf8mb4_general_ci`";
        qr.update(conn,sql);
    }
}
catch (Exception e)
{
            e.printStackTrace();
            throw new RuntimeException(e);
}
finally {
    if(conn!=null) {
        try {
            conn.close();
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
   }
}
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DbUtilsTool类:
 
package com.mysql.chartest;
 
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;
 
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.BasicRowProcessor;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.BeanProcessor;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.QueryRunner;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.ArrayHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.ArrayListHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.BeanHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.BeanListHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.ColumnListHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.KeyedHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.MapHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.MapListHandler;
import org.apache.commons.dbutils.handlers.ScalarHandler;
 
public class DbUtilsTool {
    private static final QueryRunner runner = new QueryRunner();
 
    /* 打开数据库连接(type: MySQL,Oracle,SQLServer) */
    public static Connection openConn(String type,      //数据库类型
                                      String host,      //主机ip
                                      String port,      //主机端口
                                      String name,      //数据库名
                                      String username,  //用户名
                                      String password)//密码
     {
        Connection conn = null;
        try {
            String driver;
            String url;
            if (type.equalsIgnoreCase("MySQL")) {
                driver = "com.mysql.jdbc.Driver";
                url = "jdbc:mysql://" + host + ":" + port + "/" + name;
            } else if (type.equalsIgnoreCase("Oracle")) {
                driver = "oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleDriver";
                url = "jdbc:oracle:thin:@" + host + ":" + port + ":" + name;
            } else if (type.equalsIgnoreCase("SQLServer")) {
                driver = "com.microsoft.jdbc.sqlserver.SQLServerDriver";
                url = "jdbc:sqlserver://" + host + ":" + port + ";databaseName=" + name;
            } else {
                throw new RuntimeException();
            }
            Class.forName(driver);
            conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url, username, password);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return conn;
    }
 
    /* 关闭数据库连接 */
    public static void closeConn(Connection conn) {
        try {
            if (conn != null) {
                conn.close();
            }
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
 
    /* 查询(返回Array结果) */
    public static Object[] queryArray(Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        Object[] result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new ArrayHandler(), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询(返回ArrayList结果) */
    public static List<Object[]> queryArrayList(Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        List<Object[]> result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new ArrayListHandler(), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询(返回Map结果) */
    public static Map<String, Object> queryMap(Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        Map<String, Object> result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new MapHandler(), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询(返回MapList结果) */
    public static List<Map<String, Object>> queryMapList(Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        List<Map<String, Object>> result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new MapListHandler(), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询(返回Bean结果) */
    public static <T> T queryBean(Class<T> cls, Map<String, String> map, Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        T result = null;
        try {
            if (map != null) {
                result = runner.query(conn, sql, new BeanHandler<T>(cls, new BasicRowProcessor(new BeanProcessor(map))), params);
            } else {
                result = runner.query(conn, sql, new BeanHandler<T>(cls), params);
            }
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询(返回BeanList结果) */
    public static <T> List<T> queryBeanList(Class<T> cls, Map<String, String> map, Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        List<T> result = null;
        try {
            if (map != null) {
                result = runner.query(conn, sql, new BeanListHandler<T>(cls, new BasicRowProcessor(new BeanProcessor(map))), params);
            } else {
                result = runner.query(conn, sql, new BeanListHandler<T>(cls), params);
            }
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询指定列名的值(单条数据) */
    public static <T> T queryColumn(String column, Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        T result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new ScalarHandler<T>(column), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询指定列名的值(多条数据) */
    public static <T> List<T> queryColumnList(String column, Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        List<T> result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new ColumnListHandler<T>(column), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 查询指定列名对应的记录映射 */
    public static <T> Map<T, Map<String, Object>> queryKeyMap(String column, Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        Map<T, Map<String, Object>> result = null;
        try {
            result = runner.query(conn, sql, new KeyedHandler<T>(column), params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
 
    /* 更新(包括UPDATE、INSERT、DELETE,返回受影响的行数) */
    public static int update(Connection conn, String sql, Object... params) {
        int result = 0;
        try {
            result = runner.update(conn, sql, params);
        } catch (SQLException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
}

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文章作者: Lee

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一条评论 to 支持emoji图标直接存储到数据库,更改MySQL数据库的编码为utf8mb4

Lee
2017 年 11 月 18 日

修改数据库字符集:

ALTER DATABASE db_name DEFAULT CHARACTER SET character_name [COLLATE …];

把表默认的字符集和所有字符列(CHAR,VARCHAR,TEXT)改为新的字符集:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET character_name [COLLATE …]

如:ALTER TABLE logtest CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

只是修改表的默认字符集:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DEFAULT CHARACTER SET character_name [COLLATE…];

如:ALTER TABLE logtest DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

修改字段的字符集:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name CHANGE c_name c_name CHARACTER SET character_name [COLLATE …];

如:ALTER TABLE logtest CHANGE title title VARCHAR(100) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

查看数据库编码:

SHOW CREATE DATABASE db_name;

查看表编码:

SHOW CREATE TABLE tbl_name;

查看字段编码:

SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM tbl_name;

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